Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Antimicrobial resistance refers to the phenomenon whereby
bacteria develop the ability to continue proliferating in the
presence of an antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, or anti
fungal substance to which they were formerly sensitive. In
this report, the term is used to refer to bacterial resistance
to antibiotics. AMR specific to antibacterial substances is
fuelled by the excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics
in human beings and animals, as well as the dumping of
antibiotic-laden waste by pharmaceutical manufacturers into
the natural environment. It is a global public health problem
which is expected to worsen considerably in the coming
decades, leading to millions of deaths worldwide.
The term ‘superbug’ is commonly used to describe a strain
of bacteria which has become resistant to antibiotics.
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one example of a superbug
which has become resistant to a variety of antibiotics.
Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)
The US Food and Drug Administration defines active
pharmaceutical ingredients as any substance or mixture
of substances intended to be used in the manufacture of a
medicinal product and that, when used in the production of
a drug, becomes an active ingredient of the drug product.
APIs are often manufactured separately from the finished
dose products which are marketed to end-consumers.
According to the World Health Organization, a generic
drug is a pharmaceutical product, usually intended to
be interchangeable with an innovator product, that is
manufactured without a licence from the innovator company
and marketed after the expiry date of the patent or other
This is a SumOfUs report based on research by Changing Markets and Profundo.
Published in June 2015
Designed by Pietro Bruni
For more information visit:
Sum of Us: www.sumofus.org
Changing Markets: www.changingmarkets.com